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To address recent industry concerns over the presence of high-quality undisclosed synthetics in the market, GIA gives readers insight into the world of synthetic diamonds.

Based on GIA's (Gemological  Institute of America) research and practical testing experience over the past four decades, synthetic diamonds can be distinguished from natural diamonds by well-trained staff in a fully equipped gemmological laboratory.

Synthetic   (also  called lab-grown, man-made or even cultured') diamond sarecreated through a technological process, as opposed to the geological process that creates natural diamonds. They have essentially the same chemical composition,
crystal structure, optical and physical properties as diamonds found in nature.

Types of Synthetic Diamonds

Most synthetic diamonds are categorised as either high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) or chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamonds, depending on the method of their production. Since HPHT and CVD diamonds are visually (to the untrained, unaided eye) identical to natural diamonds, differences in their characteristics and atomic structures only become clear when examined by well-trained staff in a fully equipped gemmological laboratory.

High-pressure, High-temperature (HPHT):

The first commercially produced gem quality synthetics were created by the HPHT process, which essentially replicates the forces that create diamonds in nature. The GIA researchers quickly devised gemmological tests to identify synthetic diamonds and De Beers developed two instruments that support the process – Diamond Sure and Diamond View TM. The majority of HPHT-grown synthetics are yellow to orangey-yellow, though manufacturers are able to create fancy colours and, still in small numbers, colourless synthetics.

Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD): A process in which synthetic diamonds are created inside a chamber by certain gasses depositing extremely thin layers of diamond on a substrate, a small platform'. The GIA pioneered the research that describes the characteristics of CVD synthetics, allowing others to identify them as well.

Synthetics versus Simulants

Colloquially, the term synthetic is often associated with 'imitation' or 'fake'. But in gemmological terms, synthetics and simulants (imitations) are completely different. Synthetic diamonds can claim atomic relationship with the natural stone. While the appearance of simulants is similar to that of natural diamonds, they are not diamonds. Common diamond simulants include glass and cubic zirconia (CZ), both of which are completely unrelated to diamond at the atomic level and merely resemble diamonds.

Detection and Disclosure

Every stone submitted to GIA for grading goes through the same rigorous process, including examination with specialised equipment, and expert review and analysis to determine if it is natural or synthetic. Experts can readily identify all synthetic diamonds including those treated after growth. The specialised Diamond Sure and Diamond View devices are used to flag stones that may be synthetic. Further analysis and identification by GIA experts includes FTIR spectroscopy analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis, phosphorescence spectroscopy analysis and detailed gemological observations.

GIA's Resources in India

While synthetic diamonds are only a small segment of the market, there is concern in the market about them. The GIA is at the forefront in meeting this challenge, offering a distinct report for synthetics, as well as a new, low-cost identification option for diamonds 0.20 carats and under as part of its Quality Assurance service.

GIA   Synthetic   Diamond
Grading Reports

These reports offer a gemmological evaluation of the 4Cs (colour, cut, clarity and carat weight), though descriptions of colour and clarity are more general than for natural diamonds. For added disclosure and identification, the synthetic diamond's girdle is laser inscribed with its report number and a statement that the stone is laboratory grown.

The Laboratory issues synthetic diamond grading reports for loose, colourless to near-colourless synthetic diamonds that weigh 0.15 carats or more. The GIA Synthetic Diamond Grading Reports are not issued for simulants, mounted synthetic diamonds or those that have undergone unstable treatments, such as fracture filling or coating. And while synthetic diamond grading reports may be issued for diamonds that have been laser drilled, this stable treatment is prominently disclosed on the report.

The GIA Diamond Quality Assurance service

Specifically designed to screen parcels of small diamonds, the newly-added GIA Quality Assurance option combines screening for synthetics with colour treatment detection. This service examines D-to-Z diamonds and coloured diamonds up to 0.20 carats and black diamond's up to 0.50 carats. Based on the examination, GIA will issue a statement that the stone is synthetic or natural and—if natural—whether any permanent colour treatments have been applied. GIA will accept both mounted and loose stones for examination.

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